The Costume Museum Kyoto Japan Costume History in Japan
The Heian Period  
40 - Courtier in regular court dress, ikan: ho (=outer robe) and sashinuki
(=divided long skirt or trousers)
The Costume Museum Kyoto JapanThe Costume Museum Kyoto Japan
1 kanmuri crown
a koji
b kogai
c hitai
d ei
2 ho
3 sashinuki or nu-bakama
4 hitoe
5 tato paper
6 hi-ogi fan
The "ikan" (=outer robe and trousers) is the informal dress of the Imperial Court as compared with "sokutai (= full court dress)." And "sekitai (=stone belt)" is not worn. The full court dress was also called "hinoshouzoku" (=dress for daytime). On the other hand, "ikan" was referred to as "tonoishouzoku" (=dress for home). However, "tonoishouzoku" was soon to be worn to get on the floor of the Imperial Palace. It seems that since "i "(=clothes ) and" kan" (=crown) mean government posts, the costume for a government official was named "Ikan." There is no distinction between a civil servant and a military officer with regard to "Ikan" (=outer robe and trousers). Fundamentally, the Imperial Court people of the third or higher ranking were "kugyou (=high ranking courtier) and those of the fourth and fifth ranking were "tenjou-bito" (=court nobles). As a winter costume of court nobles of the fifth rank, the composite figure wears a "ho" (=robe) in purple color and "sashinuki" (or nu-hakama=long divided skirt) without crests at it. Moreover, it puts in "tato-shi" (=pocket paper) into the bosom, and it has "hioogi (=fan)" in its hand, and it is transitory in "shitozu" "[-- if an aristocrat is 40 or more years old could wear "shitozu", when he is allowed particularly.]