The Costume Museum Kyoto Japan Costume History in Japan
The Edo Period  
153 - A fighter samurai in a chain undergarment and a simple helmet.
The Costume Museum Kyoto JapanThe Costume Museum Kyoto Japan

1 tatami-hitai-ate
2 tasuki
3 kusari-juban
4 uchigatana-shohtoh
5 uchigatana-daitoh
6 kusari-tekoh
7 hakama
8 habaki
9 waraji
The figure in the photo is the image of the samurai who is ready to fight agaist enemies in the latter half of Edo era. He wears a "tatami-hitaiateon" helmet on the forehead. In the latter half of the Heian era, there was a simple helmet called "hatsumuri (=half head)" which was drawn on the picture scroll; the original does not exist, however. The production history of the "kabuto" helmet is as follows: firstly the "ate" which protects the face, then "hanpoh (=half cheek)",the "hanpoh" (=half cheek) for the lower parts of the face, the "shita-hoh (=bottom cheek)",the "me-no-shita-hoh" (=bottom cheek) which covers a nose, and finally the "soh-men (=total mask)", the "soh-men" (=total mask) which covers the whole face with the "tare" which protects the throat. However, when a helmet is not use, in order to protect a head, a protecting plate called "hachigane (=bowl and metal)" was sewn in the "hachimaki" headband. (From the Muromachi era.); or a string is attached to the left of the plate, and a right end, and it was connected behind the head. Being covered with a helmet became on the contrary strange in the Edo era,the top of the head is also protected by the fold-up formula; the "tare"(=thing hanging down) like a "kyoyoh" was attached to the cheeks;the"tatami-hitai-ate" protector became popular. The costume in the photo is original clothes and equipments produced in those days. The chain is sewn in the "juban" garment. It was around the latter half of Heian era when the chain came to be used for armor; the word of "kusari-haramaki" (=chain body-armor) is in "The Tale of the Heike"; the chain was used also for "kote" hand protector. In the latter half of Edo era, the "haori" jacket and the "kosode" kimono and the "juban" garment to which chain was sewn in, were used as the substitution of a simple armor; After the war of "Shimabara-no-ran", the war by the group was not fought till the Meiji Restoration, because the sneak attack by a small number of military power or the defense to it was taken into consideration. The figure in the photo wears the costume for a sneak attack: a "tatami-hitai-ate", a "kusari-juban", a "kusari-tekkoh", a "kosode" in the "migikata-nugi" style, a "hakama" without "momodachi", a "tasuki" sash, a pair of "waraji" straw sandals and a set of long and short swords. It is the actual figure of the fighting samurai in the final stage of Edo era.