dolls for the Girls' Festival In
the Edo era, the public holidays which the Imperial Court, the samurai,
and the townspeople share were the five holidays of festivals.
holidays are as follows: the "Jin-jitsu (=Man-day) on January 7"
, the "Johshi ", on March 3, the "Tango (=Boys' Festival)
on May 5 , the "Tanabata" on July 7, the "Chohyoh on
September 9." The
each public holiday has the meaning of a seasonal change and the day
when people pray for health. The
holiday of "Johshi" was the day of misfortune originally.
was a custom of avoiding misfortune by passing a "figure of a man"
in water on this public holiday. March
is the month when the flower of a peach blooms.
Heian era, the "Hiina-asobi"="Playing with dolls
displayed for the Dolls' Festival" has been a play of young girls.
festival has been considered as the event in which healthy growth of
young girls is wished, and has been established as an annual event.
word "hiina" was the word "HINA" of Sanskrit and has
the meaning of "small". (The word was introduced into Japan in
the ancient time.) The
"tachi-bina (=standing doll)", which is considered to be the
original form of the present dolls for the Girls' Festival, was produced
in the Muromachi era. The
doll in the present style, which is sitting on the floor, was
manufactured in the Edo era. Several
styles of the dolls were made then: the "Kanei-bina", the "Kyoho-bina",
and the decent "Jirozaemon-bina", whose face is round.
Imperial Court, however, the mistake of the Imperial Court's practices
was corrected and the doll called the "Yusoku-bina (=ancient
practice doll)" was made. Among
the townspeople, "Kokon-bina" (=past and present doll) modeled
on the "Yusoku-bina" was made.