a daimyo wore a "juttoku" jacket instead of a "ko-dohfuku"
jacket in the Edo era. The
portrait of a daimyo, who wears a "juttoku" jacket with the
combination of an "eboshi", a formal headgear for court
nobles, and a "sashinuki" hakama trousers, remains.
common, a"chabohzu-gashira", a master of tea ceremony priest,
wore a "juttoku" jacket and "naga-bakama" trousers,
and a "chabohzu", a tea ceremony priest, wore a "juttoku"
jacket and a "kinagashi(=wearing kimono with no hakama on)"
combination style . The
statute of Sen-no Rikyu, the founder of the Sen family style tea
ceremony wears a "dohfuku" jacket. Afterwards the "dohfuku"
jacket became a full dress and the "juttoku" jacket became the
ordinary dress. And
the "juttoku" jacket became a master's of the tea ceremony
(men of the tea ceremony) full dress eventually.
the "juttoku" jacket became a doctor's ordinary dress in the
Edo era. The
so-called "bunka-jin", a man of culture, who are not the
Imperial court nobles, the samurai, the farmer, and the townspeople,
made living by study and arts, wore the "juttoku" jacket and
was called the "hiro-sode-no-hito (=a man of large sleeve kimono)".
retired court nobles, samurai, and townspeople lived the rest of its
life as a "bunka-jin (=people of culture)", and used the "juttoku"
jacket regularly. The
collar of the "juttoku" jacket is extended to the lower end of
the body of clothes. It
is not put together aslant in front; it is not in the "okumi"
width of the sleeves is just one and the sleeves are large.
sleeve length is not long like a "kariginu" or a"
total length is short; it is up to the position in the knees
collar is not turned up like a haori. Its
string is a "kuke-himo" string type and is attached on the
both the sides of its body, a pleat or a "waki-ire" is
attached to down from the bottom of a sleeve.
band is not used. Its
material is usually "hitoe-mono (=one-piece kimono)" of the
solid color, which is made of of "sha" fabrics, and the color
is usually black. The
color of the original "juttoku" jacket is considered to be
yellowish green or white. What
type of kimono is the "juttoku" jacket?
no specific sect which accepts the "juttoku" jacket as a
Buddhistic priest's robe as of today. Moreover,
such a sect did not exist in the Edo era, either.
It was in
the description of the book titled "Kaei Sandai Ki" that the
name of "juttoku" appeared first on the historical stage.
book wrote about the"juttoku" as follows; "When visiting
to the Ise Jingu shrine on the Ohei 29th year  September 18, the "juttoku"
jackets were worn on the way." After
that, a book titled as "Ken Nai Ki" described that Shogun
Ashikaga Yoshikatsu's attendants wore the "juttoku" jackets
when he worshipped at the Ise Shrine on March 23 in the Kakitsu first
year ; this is not considered to be a Buddhist priest's robe,
a historical book titled "Ashikaga Kiseiki" wrote about the
in-the-field dress of Hatakeyama Bokuzan; "Bokuzan had armor on
inside of a "juttoku" robe." Since
the book wrote the costume as "a juttoku robe", it is
conjectured that he wore a kind of the Buddhist priest's robe.
Bokuzan had forsaken the world at the age of 18, he was called
Hatakeyama Owari-no-kami (=the daimyo of Owari) Naoyoshi, which
indicates he was the person in a daimyo's status, and was not a pure
priest, however. Although
the "juttoku" is not actually a priest's robe, it is
considered to have been used as a kimono of the everyday wear for the
men of the same rank as a priest. They
are the persons who were given priest's court ranks, such as the "hohin"
grade, the "hotsukyo" grade and the "risshi" grade,
and positions such as the "kenko" .
are those who are engaged in entertainments and technology, such as
pictures, sculpture, music, medical treatment, and singing songs.
Noh play was completed by the men who had priest names of Ji-shu sect,
such as Ze-ami, Kan-ami, Gei-ami, Noh-ami. As
regard to the tea ceremony, there was a particular way of naming a
person, such as Rikyu Koji, which means a person named Rikyu practicing
asceticism person of non-ordination into priesthood.
were in charge of study and art are priests or men of the same rank; to
retire from the world and to go into the world of Buddhism have the same
the other hand, some of them took charge of study and art, and served
the noted house with power of those days; the center of these people's
main flows of the thought was in the Ji-shu-sect Buddhism.
Ji-sect Buddhism, which was one of the main flows of the thoughts in the
time from the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the early
stages of Ashikaga period, was established among the common people, and
completed literature out of the common people.
days, the "ami-e" (=net clothes), which was once evaluated low
and called the "umaginu" (=horse clothes), was eventually
liked by the common people; it came to be loved by upstream people soon
and became the "juttoku" jacket. The
"dohfuku" robe was probably originated in the zen's "jikitotsu"
monk's robe, and in the same way, the "juttoku" jacket was
probably originated in the Ji-shu sect's "ami-e" monk's robe.
word "juttoku" and the word "shutoku (=picking up)"
have the similar sound, therefore, the "juttoku" jacket was
probably the clothes which was worn by the people in the lowest class of
the society. The
"hitatare" dress of samurai was set to a samurai's very formal
full dress with a samurai' s rise even though it was a night wear or an
everyday wear of the low-ranked samurai who served the Imperial Court
the same way, the "juttoku" jacket" was originated among
the common people and it was established its position with the
improvement of capability and status of the people.
means "ten virtue" in Japanese, i.e., it means "a thing
with all virtue." When
it is put in another way, the clothes with virtue could be counted like
the Buddhist priest's robe; in this interpretation, it is presumed that
the "juttoku" was considered the clothes which was ranked the
same as the priest's robe. And
the "juttoku" is linguistically common also in the "jikitotsu"
robe of the Zen priests. The
popularity of the kimonos of the Zen Buddhism in the Muromachi era, and
the powerful flow of the thought of overthrowing an established
authority made the dress in a new style. The
"dohfuku" robe, which was developed from the zen's "jikitotsu"
monk's robe, is the high-class dress for people in general; the "juttoku"
jacket is the non-priest and non-world type of dress, which was created
at the bottom of the society and the Ji-shu sect adopted from it.
kimono, simpler than the "ko-dohbuku" , which is the
simplified "dohbuku" coat , is the "juttoku" jacket.
short, a kimono simpler than the "ko-dohbuku" coat, which is
the simplified "dohbuku", is the "juttoku" jacket.