The Costume Museum Kyoto Japan Costume History in Japan
The Edo Period  
138 - Tea ceremonial master in a uniform, Juttoku.
The Costume Museum Kyoto JapanThe Costume Museum Kyoto Japan
Even a daimyo wore a "juttoku" jacket instead of a "ko-dohfuku" jacket in the Edo era. The portrait of a daimyo, who wears a "juttoku" jacket with the combination of an "eboshi", a formal headgear for court nobles, and a "sashinuki" hakama trousers, remains. When common, a"chabohzu-gashira", a master of tea ceremony priest, wore a "juttoku" jacket and "naga-bakama" trousers, and a "chabohzu", a tea ceremony priest, wore a "juttoku" jacket and a "kinagashi(=wearing kimono with no hakama on)" combination style . The statute of Sen-no Rikyu, the founder of the Sen family style tea ceremony wears a "dohfuku" jacket. Afterwards the "dohfuku" jacket became a full dress and the "juttoku" jacket became the ordinary dress. And the "juttoku" jacket became a master's of the tea ceremony (men of the tea ceremony) full dress eventually. Moreover, the "juttoku" jacket became a doctor's ordinary dress in the Edo era. The so-called "bunka-jin", a man of culture, who are not the Imperial court nobles, the samurai, the farmer, and the townspeople, made living by study and arts, wore the "juttoku" jacket and was called the "hiro-sode-no-hito (=a man of large sleeve kimono)". The retired court nobles, samurai, and townspeople lived the rest of its life as a "bunka-jin (=people of culture)", and used the "juttoku" jacket regularly. The collar of the "juttoku" jacket is extended to the lower end of the body of clothes. It is not put together aslant in front; it is not in the "okumi" style. Its width of the sleeves is just one and the sleeves are large. Its sleeve length is not long like a "kariginu" or a" hitatare." Its total length is short; it is up to the position in the knees Its collar is not turned up like a haori. Its string is a "kuke-himo" string type and is attached on the breast. By both the sides of its body, a pleat or a "waki-ire" is attached to down from the bottom of a sleeve. A "obi" band is not used. Its material is usually "hitoe-mono (=one-piece kimono)" of the solid color, which is made of of "sha" fabrics, and the color is usually black. The color of the original "juttoku" jacket is considered to be yellowish green or white. What type of kimono is the "juttoku" jacket? There is no specific sect which accepts the "juttoku" jacket as a Buddhistic priest's robe as of today. Moreover, such a sect did not exist in the Edo era, either. It was in the description of the book titled "Kaei Sandai Ki" that the name of "juttoku" appeared first on the historical stage. The book wrote about the"juttoku" as follows; "When visiting to the Ise Jingu shrine on the Ohei 29th year [1422] September 18, the "juttoku" jackets were worn on the way." After that, a book titled as "Ken Nai Ki" described that Shogun Ashikaga Yoshikatsu's attendants wore the "juttoku" jackets when he worshipped at the Ise Shrine on March 23 in the Kakitsu first year [1441]; this is not considered to be a Buddhist priest's robe, however. Nonetheless, a historical book titled "Ashikaga Kiseiki" wrote about the in-the-field dress of Hatakeyama Bokuzan; "Bokuzan had armor on inside of a "juttoku" robe." Since the book wrote the costume as "a juttoku robe", it is conjectured that he wore a kind of the Buddhist priest's robe. Although Bokuzan had forsaken the world at the age of 18, he was called Hatakeyama Owari-no-kami (=the daimyo of Owari) Naoyoshi, which indicates he was the person in a daimyo's status, and was not a pure priest, however. Although the "juttoku" is not actually a priest's robe, it is considered to have been used as a kimono of the everyday wear for the men of the same rank as a priest. They are the persons who were given priest's court ranks, such as the "hohin" grade, the "hotsukyo" grade and the "risshi" grade, and positions such as the "kenko" . The men are those who are engaged in entertainments and technology, such as pictures, sculpture, music, medical treatment, and singing songs. The Noh play was completed by the men who had priest names of Ji-shu sect, such as Ze-ami, Kan-ami, Gei-ami, Noh-ami. As regard to the tea ceremony, there was a particular way of naming a person, such as Rikyu Koji, which means a person named Rikyu practicing asceticism person of non-ordination into priesthood. Those who were in charge of study and art are priests or men of the same rank; to retire from the world and to go into the world of Buddhism have the same meaning. On the other hand, some of them took charge of study and art, and served the noted house with power of those days; the center of these people's main flows of the thought was in the Ji-shu-sect Buddhism. The Ji-sect Buddhism, which was one of the main flows of the thoughts in the time from the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the early stages of Ashikaga period, was established among the common people, and completed literature out of the common people. In those days, the "ami-e" (=net clothes), which was once evaluated low and called the "umaginu" (=horse clothes), was eventually liked by the common people; it came to be loved by upstream people soon and became the "juttoku" jacket. The "dohfuku" robe was probably originated in the zen's "jikitotsu" monk's robe, and in the same way, the "juttoku" jacket was probably originated in the Ji-shu sect's "ami-e" monk's robe. The word "juttoku" and the word "shutoku (=picking up)" have the similar sound, therefore, the "juttoku" jacket was probably the clothes which was worn by the people in the lowest class of the society. The "hitatare" dress of samurai was set to a samurai's very formal full dress with a samurai' s rise even though it was a night wear or an everyday wear of the low-ranked samurai who served the Imperial Court originally. In the same way, the "juttoku" jacket" was originated among the common people and it was established its position with the improvement of capability and status of the people. "Juttoku" means "ten virtue" in Japanese, i.e., it means "a thing with all virtue." When it is put in another way, the clothes with virtue could be counted like the Buddhist priest's robe; in this interpretation, it is presumed that the "juttoku" was considered the clothes which was ranked the same as the priest's robe. And the "juttoku" is linguistically common also in the "jikitotsu" robe of the Zen priests. The popularity of the kimonos of the Zen Buddhism in the Muromachi era, and the powerful flow of the thought of overthrowing an established authority made the dress in a new style. The "dohfuku" robe, which was developed from the zen's "jikitotsu" monk's robe, is the high-class dress for people in general; the "juttoku" jacket is the non-priest and non-world type of dress, which was created at the bottom of the society and the Ji-shu sect adopted from it. A kimono, simpler than the "ko-dohbuku" , which is the simplified "dohbuku" coat , is the "juttoku" jacket. In short, a kimono simpler than the "ko-dohbuku" coat, which is the simplified "dohbuku", is the "juttoku" jacket.