court lady in the photo was called "uneme", who was near the
Emperor and took charge of things, such as serving Emperor's table.
means a young woman. The
"une" as in "uneme" means "to select", and
the "uneme" means a selected beautiful woman.
When the "uneme"
is considered in the modern way, it is equivalent to a beauty queen.
is written in the clause of Emperor Kohtoku, Nihon Shoki (=Chronicle of
Japan) 25, that the "uneme" were widely collected at every
area in the ancient time. By
the legal codes of Yohroh in the Heian eras, six "uneme" were
assigned to work for "suishi (=office for water)", one of the
12 government offices in the back palace; 60 "uneme" were
arranged to work in the royal kitchen in the back palace as well; in
order to superintend them, the superviser of the "uneme" was
appointed to work for the Department of the Imperial Household.
legal codes of Enki in the Heian eras, it is recorded that the emperor
gave the land near Miyagi prefecture to 37 "uneme" maids.
a royal benefit went out of custom gradually, however, the record of
Kamakura era shows that the "uneme" maids for serving at the
royal table were called "kamiage uneme (=rising hair uneme)",
maids who arranged the hair. As
regard to the "kamiage uneme", there is an opinion of the
opinion of maids, "migushi-age" for the court ladies, and "uneme"
"uneme" maids of having arranged their straight hair for
serving at the royal table. [ which serves dressing hair ]
Muromachi era, the "uneme" maids were chosen from the
daughters of elder statesmen of many daimyo families and the custom
continued till the Edo era. According
to the Gomizuo-in's annual event calendar, the "Naishi-dokoro"
office in the Imperial CourtÌ"toji", the lower
court lady, as "toji", the lower court lady, of the "Naishi-dokoro"
office in the Imperial Court, the "uneme" maids were also at
them, the "uneme" royal maids called "Achiya" or "
Akaka" were at service; it seems that the daughters of Shinto
priests or government officials were nominated as these roles.
present time, in the case of a Harvest Festival after an Emperor's
enthronement and the Niname festival,when the Emperor personally offers
the "omono" steamed rice made from the new husks of the year,
the "shiroki" white sake, and the "kuroki" black
sake and etc. to pray for the eight million gods in the sky and the
ground,the court ladies called the "baizen" and "shindori"
wear the dress of the "uneme" royal maid, and serve on their
far as the costume of "uneme" in the Heian era is concerened,
the Saiguki [extraordinary 4] writes, "Uchimiya baizen, court lady
attendants wearing blue long sleeve garments, and so and so...the "uneme"
wear ordinary karaginu dresses, etc." Moreover,
"Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon" writes, " Eight unemes were
taken out riding on the horse bakcs. The scenery that their garments,
such as the mo garments of dark blue sleeves, the kuntai ornamental
waist strings, and the hire showles..., have been currently blown by the
wind, is very interesting." Therefore,
it can be said that the costume for"uneme" was a formal
costume for the Imperial court, which in a set with the "mo"
garment, the "kutai" string, and the "hire" shawl.
dress of ten serving court ladieses, which was described at record of
accession to the throne of the Emperor Eijin of the Kamakura era at the
end of the 13th century, shows that the court ladies of the same status
of a grade as the "uneme" ladies wore "karaginu"
dress of the "dei-e (mud picture)" painting.
to the "Kojitsu Shuyoh", the book of old regulations and
customs, such as a ceremony, a legal system, manners, and dress and
ornaments, the dress of "uneme" ladies in the middle of the
Edo era is; the "e-ginu" garment : "The color of camellia
flower and the lining cloth are the raw silk. The outer material is
yellowish green in color with the pattern of cloud." " The
outer material is silk, the cloth is in the color of flowers, and is
with the pattern of the blue ocean." the "hakama"
trousers: Both the outer material and lining cloth are red "hiraginu"
figure in the photo wears only the garment of the pattern of blue-sea
waves under the "e-ginu" garment; it does not wear "karaginu"
garment of half-the-body size, like the one after the late Edo era.
color of the flower of these clothes is blue which the Saiguki tells the
amorous glance of "seijin", the color blue dust.
common in the "doro-e" of the record for the ceremonies of
accession to the throne of the Emperor Eijin Einin.
to the court lady dress wear order of Ancient-Practices Series, white
prints of the butterfly patterns are in a green "karaginu"
for "e-ginu" garment, its outer material is white in color and
its lining cloth is with the patterns of yellowish cloud, a pine, water,
and a mountain stream. It
is annotated that pictures are not restricted to this code.
It wears "hitoe"
kimono of the pattern of blue-sea waves in white color on yellowish
green material inside, a "hirabitai" ornament, etc. on the
head and a red "naga-bakama (=long hakama)" trousers .
to "the extract of modern court lady's full dress", the "uneme"
lady in the court lady's full dress, which was revived in the Kyoho 7 of
the late Edo period, wore her dress as follows:
before the Kyoho period, the "hitoe" garment with the pattern
of blue-sea waves was worn under the "e-ginu" garment, and the
"hakama"is the long "hakama"; after the Kyoho
period, the "karaginu" garment of the pattern of blue-sea
waves was worn, and the "hakama" trousers was the short one .
the "kinushita" or the "kosode", a kimono with short
sleeves was the "Kohbai-ori" fabrics in a deep color after the
Kyoho period; it was changed into white kneaded silk fabrics and the "chihaya"
cloth was further added as an object for divine works after the Meiji
era. ("Cihhaya" is a sash-like cloth which was worn by the
lady to serve a divine work.) Making
reference the original costumes of the Meiji and Taisho Era, the
imaginary costume of the figure in the photo was reproduced in the style
of the late Edo Era.