The Costume Museum Kyoto Japan Costume History in Japan
The Kamakura Period
- The Azuchi -Momoyama Period -
100 - Warrior general in kataginu (sleeveless jacket) and hakama (trousers)
The Costume Museum Kyoto JapanThe Costume Museum Kyoto Japan
1 futatsu-ori-no-mage
2 kosode
3 shitagi
4 kataginu
5 hakama-no-koshi-ita
6 katana
7 ohgi
8 hakama
9 tabi
It begins from the "hitatare" dress which was a samurai's full dress, and the simple dress was made one after another to the "daimon" or the "su-oh" dress. The "daimon" is a type of "hitatare" which is dyed large-sized family crest at five places and the crests are attached also to a hakama at five places. It started in the Muromachi era and it became the usual full dress of the samurai who were at higher than the fifth ranking at the Imperial court in the Edo era. Afterwards, as each dress became the clothes for a ceremony, the "kataginu (=sleeveless clothe)" jacket, which was the "suoh" dress without sleeves, and a "hakama" trousers came to be worn usually worn together with a "kosode (=small sleeve)" inside. Though it was also a everyday clothes, it became one kind of full dress. In the Edo era, the set of "kataginu" jacket and "hakama" trousers was referred to as "kamishimo (=top and bottom)", and it became a samurai's full dress. The figure in the photo was based on the portrait of Oda Nobunaga. The hegemon Oda Nobunaga was assassinated by his vassal Akechi Mitsuhide at Honno-ji Temple in kyoto (=Honno-ji Incident, 1582=Tensho 10.6.2.). Nobunaga's portrait was painted next year by Kanoh Motohide for the first anniversary of his death. It has been preserved at Choko-ji temple in Aichi prefecture. The figure wears a bluish green "kataginu" jacket and a "hakama" trousers in the same color with two white stripes. Five "mikiri-mon (three-paulownia crests) are dyed on them. In the "rocho" (=bare head) style, he wears a white "kosode" (=small sleeves) garment over a red underwear, and has a sword at the waist. [Since it was natural for a samurai to wear a hat or a crown in a ceremonial situation, there was a special term, "rocho (=bare top)" or "rotoh (=bare head)", for the costume style with bare head.] He has a "shirabone-no-ohgi" fan in his hand. A "koshi-ita (=waist board)" panel is attached to the "hakama" trousers, and a"koshi-himo (=waist string)" is narrow. Unlike the counterpart the "kataginu" jacket in future generations, its pleats are made natural and the "awase", an overlap of neckbands, in front of the breast are set deep.